Arborescent shrub or small tree to 8 m, with glabrous, usually thorny twigs; lvs glabrous, or often strigose-scaberulous above especially when young, mostly elliptic to ovate, abruptly acuminate, with shallow lateral lobes, 3-7 נ2-5 cm; petiole to half as long as the blade, glabrous or sometimes slightly glandular; fls 1.3-1.8 cm wide, in glabrous compound cymes; fr 0.8-1.5 cm thick, red, tending to become mellow; nutlets 2-5, acute, tending to be shallowly pitted on the inner face. Que. and N. Engl. to N.Y. and in the mts. to N.C., w. to Mich.(C. coleae; C. dunbarii; C. eatoniana; C. macauleyae; C. pinguis)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.