Densely tufted perennial 3-7 dm, often developing short, thick rhizomes; sheaths scaberulous; ligules 2-5 mm; blades thick, scabrous, 2-4 mm wide, usually involute; infl contracted, usually pinkish or purplish, 4-10 cm; spikelets rarely 2-fld; glumes acuminate, 5-9 mm, the lemma three-fourths as long; callus-hairs a fourth as long as the lemma; awn inserted near the base, 4.5-9 mm, longer than the lemma, geniculate near the middle, the terminal part 3-4 mm, the basal part twisted; rachilla- vestige densely villous with hairs 1 mm; 2n=28-84. Rocky slopes and well drained, sandy soil; Greenl. to Alas. and e. Asia, s. to Que., Colo., and Calif., entering our range only in se. Ont. and Cook Co., Minn.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.