(L.) G.L. Nesom
Luc Brouillet, John C. Semple, Geraldine A. Allen, Kenton L. Chambers, Scott D. Sundberg+ in Flora of North America (vol. 20)
50-100 cm, colonial; woody rhizomatous.
1-5+, erect (stout, brown), proximally ± hispid, distally sparsely strigose, distally stipitate-glandular.
stiff (dark green), greatly reduced distally, margins entire, scabrous; basal early deciduous, sessile, blades (3-nerved) oblanceolate, 40-80 × 4-12 mm, bases attenuate, apices obtuse to acute, faces sparsely scabrous; proximal cauline usually withered by flowering, sessile, blades oblanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, 20-60 × 5-20 mm, bases cordate-clasping, apices acute, mucronulate, faces glabrate to sparsely scabrous, stipitate-glandular; distal sessile, blades lanceolate to oblong, 20-40 × 5-8 mm, bases cuneate, apices acute, mucronulate to white-spinulose, faces glabrous or scabrous, sparsely stipitate-glandular.
in racemiform to paniculiform arrays, branches patent or ascending with 1-5+ heads.
3-5 cm, short-strigose, stipitate-glandular, bracts spreading to reflexed, lanceolate-oblong, 5-10 mm, little reduced distally, grading into phyllaries.
campanulate, 8.5-12 mm.
in 3-4 series, spatulate-oblanceolate, unequal, bases ± indurate, margins scarious, green zones covering distal portion, apices spreading to strongly reflexed, faces sparsely scabrous, moderately stipitate-glandular.
14-35; corollas light to reddish purple, laminae 11-15(-20) × 1.5-2.5 mm.
25-35; corollas yellow becoming reddish purple, 5.5-8 mm, lobes narrowly triangular, 0.7-1 mm.
light brown, cylindric to narrowly obovoid, ± compressed, 3-4.5 mm, 7-10-nerved (brown), faces moderately strigose;
tan, 5.5-6 mm.
= 30, 60. Flowering (Sep-)Oct(-Nov). Sandy soils, sand hills, roadsides, edges of deciduous woods and thickets; 0-200+ m; N.C., S.C., Va.
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