Leaves crisped and incurved when dry, margins plane to narrowly incurved or recurved at middle, 1-stratose except on margins in distal half, cells smooth; alar cells undifferentiated. Specialized asexual reproduction frequent, multicellular gemmae frequent on abaxial surface of leaves. Capsule with annulus of 1-3 rows of somewhat separating cells; peristome smooth basally, papillose distally. Capsules mature late fall-winter. Forming short turf or tufts on tree trunks and decorticated logs, rarely in rock crevices; 1-1900 m; B.C.; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash; Asia; n Africa.