Primocanes trailing, rooting at least at the tip, armed with a few short, stout, ±recurved prickles with expanded base, also hispid with many reddish glandular bristles; primocane lvs ±evergreen, 5-foliolate, on long, prickly petioles; lateral lfls sessile or subsessile; terminal lfl on a prickly and hispid petiolule a fourth to a third as long as the blade, mostly elliptic or oblong, a third to half as wide as long, serrate; flowering branches (excluding the peduncle) rarely over 1 dm, often only 1-3 cm, with a few small 3-foliolate lvs and commonly 1 (rarely 2) peduncles much surpassing the lvs. Chiefly in dry or sandy soil; Md. (?) and se. Va. to Fla. and Tex., n. in the interior to Mo. Apr., May.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.