Viola spp.
Family: Violaceae
Viola image
Walter Fertig  
PLANT: Caulescent or acaulescent annual or perennial herbs. LEAVES: simple, dissected or compound, basal, cauline or both, stipulate, petiolate, alternate or opposite. INFLORESCENCE: flowers solitary, axillary or scapose. FLOWERS: sepals subequal, auriculate at base; petals unequal, the lower petal shorter or longer than others, the base elongated into a spur or gibbous on underside; lateral 2 petals generally spreading, generally bearded at base; upper 2 petals equal, erect or spreading; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into the spur or sac; cleistogamous flowers present in many spp. FRUITS: ovoid to oblong, glabrous or hairy. SEEDS ca. 15‑20, usually ovoid, with a prominent caruncle. NOTES: Ca. 400 spp.; worldwide. (Latin: Viola, a classical name.) Clausen, J. 1964. Madroño 17:173‑197. REFERENCES: Little, R. John. Violaceae. 2001. J. Ariz. - Nev. Acad. Sci. Volume 33(1).
Sep usually with posterior auricles; pet somewhat unequal, the 2 lateral ones often bearded internally at the base, the lower one usually with a basal spur or sac and sometimes bearded at the throat; stamens 5, the 2 lowermost bearing appendages that extend into the spur of the lower pet; ours herbs with axillary or basal 1-fld peduncles bearing 2 small bracts near the middle. Most spp. produce normal petaliferous fls in spring, and very fertile cleistogamous fls in summer. All spp. with cyanic (rather than yellow) fls produce occasional white-fld forms. Hybrids between closely related spp. are common, and spp. 3-8 form an intergrading polyploid complex. 400, mainly N. Temp.

Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.

©The New York Botanical Garden. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
Image of Viola aberrans
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Image of Viola acutifolia
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Image of Viola alba
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Image of Viola altaica
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Image of Viola angellae
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Image of Viola arborescens
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Image of Viola arenaria
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Image of Viola arizonica
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Image of Viola calcarata
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Image of Viola californica
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Image of Viola carolina
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Image of Viola cascadensis
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Image of Viola chaerophylloides
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Image of Viola chamissoniana
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Image of Viola chinensis
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Image of Viola ciliata
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Image of Viola cognata
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Image of Viola communis
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Image of Viola corsica
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Image of Viola cuspidata
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Image of Viola dicksonii
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Image of Viola digitata
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Image of Viola elatior
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Image of Viola eminii
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Image of Viola falcata
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Image of Viola flagelliformis
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Image of Viola flettii
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Image of Viola galeanaensis
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Image of Viola inconspicua
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Image of Viola lactea
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Image of Viola leconteana
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Image of Viola lutea
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Image of Viola maviensis
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Image of Viola montanensis
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Image of Viola nodosa
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Image of Viola oahuensis
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Image of Viola oreades
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Image of Viola orientalis
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Image of Viola ovata
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Image of Viola oxyodontis
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Image of Viola phalacrocarpa
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Image of Viola philippica
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Image of Viola physalodes
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Image of Viola pinnata
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Image of Viola prionantha
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Image of Viola pumila
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Image of Viola raddeana
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Image of Viola reptans
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Image of Viola rupestris
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Image of Viola sacchalinensis
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Image of Viola scabriuscula
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Image of Viola simulata
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Image of Viola subsagittata
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Image of Viola subvestita
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Image of Viola sylvatica
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Image of Viola variabilis
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Image of Viola variegata
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Image of Viola venosa
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Image of Viola vicinalis
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Image of Viola vittata
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Image of Viola x consobrina
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Image of Viola x dissita
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Image of Viola x mulfordiae
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Image of Viola x notabilis
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Image of Viola × bissellii
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Image of Viola × filicetorum
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Image of Viola × insolita
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Image of Viola × lovelliana
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Image of Viola × modesta
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Image of Viola × porteriana
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Image of Viola × slavinii
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