Martin and Hutchins 1980, Kearney and Peebles 1969
Duration: Annual Nativity: Non-Native Lifeform: Vine General: Rough stemmed annual, stems twining, often procumbent when young. Leaves: Blades ovate to ovate-lanceolate, cordate to sagittate at the base, acuminate at the apex; sheaths entire on the margins. Flowers: In interrupted spikelike racemes or short axillary clusters; flowers greenish or purple tinged; calyx sometimes purple tipped, puberulent, 3-4 mm long, outer lobes keeled in fruit. Fruits: Achenes 3-angled, dull black, minutely roughened. Ecology: Found on disturbed ground from 4,500-8,000 ft (1372-2438 m); flowers May-August. Notes: The twining stems are distinctive. Ethnobotany: Unknown, but other species in this genera have uses. Etymology: Polygonum is derived from Greek polys, many, and gonu, knee or goint, while convolvulus is from the Latin convolvere, to twine around. Synonyms: None Editor: SBuckley, 2010
Trailing or twining annual to 1 m; stem, petioles, and often the lf-veins scabrellate in lines; lvs sagittate to triangular-cordate, ocreae smooth; racemes interrupted, naked or with a few small lvs at base, 2-6 cm; fls in clusters of 3-6; pedicels 1-2 mm, jointed above; perianth 1.5-2 mm, green outside, white inside; achene dull black, 3-4 mm, closely invested but not exceeded by the perianth; outer tep often with narrowly winged midrib; styles united; 2n=20, 40. Roadsides, railways, and waste ground throughout our range; native of Europe. May-Oct. (Bilderdykia c.; Tiniaria c.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.