Authors: W.A. McAvoy
Citation: Flora of Delaware database. Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife, Species Conservation and Research Program, Dover, Delaware (william.mcavoy@state.de.us).

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Families: 177
Genera: 821
Species: 2250
Total Taxa (details): 2318

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A waif along the banks of the C & D Canal, last seen in 1897. The C & D Canal created an artificial pathway for this species to migrate from the Chesapeake Bay
Grassy roadsides, edges, rich woods
Fresh water tidal and non-tidal marshes and swamps
Fresh water tidal and non-tidal marshes, wet meadows
Open swamps and seeps, wet meadows and marshes
Upland woods and slopes
Swamps and wet woods
Moist woods and swamps
Moist woods and swamps
Cultivated and escaping to woodlands
A rare excape from cultivation to woodlands
Moist, open woods
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas
Rich woods, thickets, edges
Dry to moist deciduous woodlands and slopes with thin canopies
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to woodlands
Cultivated and escaping to moist woods and slopes
Overwash flats in coastal dunes, draw-down impoundments
Floodplain swales and ditches
Coastal Plain seasonal ponds, draw-down depressions
Seepage wetlands and marshes; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Brackish tidal marshes and muddy shores
Coastal Plain seasonal ponds, sandy/peaty swales, acidic fen-like habitats
Freshwater tidal shores, draw-down depressions
Fresh water tidal marshes and shores
Fresh water tidal and non-tidal marshes
Tidal river shores and swamps
Fresh to brackish tidal mud flats
Exposed tidal shores of fresh to brackish rivers
Moist woods, old fields, thickets
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rare introduction to disturbed areas
Rare on disturbed ground
Fresh to brackish tidal marshes
Cultivated and a rare escape to disturbed areas
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
A weed of agricultural fields and edges
Foredunes along Atlantic coast
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rare introduction on disturbed soils
Dunes and shores of the Delaware Bay and Atlantic coast-lines
Brackish marshes, shores, mudflats, overwash flats, coastal dunes
Wet overwash flats along Atlantic coast
Dunes of the Atlantic coast
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Infrequent on poorly drained disturbed ground
Rare on disturbed ground
Infrequent in disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rare in disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rare on disturbed ground
Rare introduction on waste ground
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Uncommon in disturbed areas, edges, floodplains
Dry sandy soils, roadsides, power-lines, fields, edges
Dry sandy soils, roadsides, power-lines, fields, edges
Bare mud in slight depressions of salt marshes
Bare mud in slight depressions of salt marshes
Salt marshes of the Inland Bays
Salt marshes and saline soils
Salt marshes, overwash flats, saline soils
Meadows and thin canopy woods
Rare introduction on disturbed ground
Rich wooded slopes
Cultivated and escaping to moist woods and floodplains; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Cultivated and escaping to floodplains; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides, moist open woods, floodplains
Thickets, old fields, edges
Thickets, old fields, edges; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Thickets, old fields, edges; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Dry, open sandy soils and edges, ancient sand ridges
In a wide range of habitats
Seepage swamp wetlands, fresh tidal shrub swamps
Moist upland woods
Escape from cultivation to disturbed ground
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Open floodplain woods and thickets, edges of marshes
Moist woods; primarily of the Coastal Plain of New Castle County
Uncommon in isturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Floodplains, gravel bars
Rare introduction on disturbed ground
Fresh and brackish swales, open swamps, edges and ditches
Rich woods and floodplains; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Infrequent on disturbed soils, road banks
Fresh water seepage marshes
Swamps and marshes
Wet meadows, floodplains, edges; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Cultivated and occassionally escapes to disturbed ground
Rich woods and floodplain seeps; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Fields, meadows and roadsides
Fen-like habitats, moist sandy seeps, shorelines, marshes, interdunal swales
Moist swales, depressions, sandpits
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Wet meadows, floodplains
Brackish tidal marshes and mudflats
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, uncommon on the Coastal Plain
Swamps and marshes
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Fresh to brackish tidal marshes
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, uncommon on the Coastal Plain
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, uncommon on the Coastal Plain
Marshes and swamps
Rich rocky woods and slopes
Coastal Plain seasonal ponds
Disturbed areas, roadsides
Rich, rocky open woods and edges
Moist rich woods, floodplains
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas
Dry open soils and edges
Old fields, thickets, roadsides
Open areas and edges on well-drained soils, ancient sand dune ridges
Rich woods and slopes
Fresh to brackish marshes and swales
Poorly drained, peaty/sandy swales, depressions and meadows
Dry open woods, fields and roadsides; primarily of the Coastal Plain, rare in the Piedmont
Clearings in rich woods and slopes
Poorly drained edges, powerlines and roadsides
Old fields, thickets, roadsides
Fields, meadows and roadsides
Rich open woods
Open areas and edges on sterile, well-drained soils
Open areas, meadows and edges on well-drained soils
Fields, edges, early successional habitats
Rare in open woods, edges and thickets
Rich open woods and edges
Low thin canopy woods, thickets, floodplains, swales and depressions
Thin canopy woods, edges and thickets; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to woodlands
Moist sandy woods
Moist woods and swamps
Moist upland woods and swamps
Moist woods and tidal and non-tidal fresh water swamps and thickets
Cultivated and a rare escape to woodland edges
Rich alluvial soils of floodplains
Slow moving streams and rivers, millponds and farm ponds, abandoned sandpits
Slow moving streams and rivers, millponds and farm ponds, abandoned sandpits
Ditches, ponds, slow moving creeks
Slow moving streams and rivers, millponds and farm ponds, abandoned sandpits
Shallow streams, fresh water marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps
Fresh water tidal marshes
Frequently discarded by home gardeners in ponds, impoundments and ditches; does not appear to overwinter
Slow moving streams and rivers, millponds and farm ponds, abandoned sandpits
Seepage swamps and stream banks
Slow moving streams and rivers, millponds and farm ponds, abandoned sandpits
Slow moving streams and rivers, millponds and farm ponds, abandoned sandpits
Fresh water impoundments, draw-down depressions
Disturbed woodlands and edges
Moist upland woods
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Young woods, edges and thickets
Thin canopy woods, edges and thickets
Thin canopy woods, edges and thickets
Swampy floodplains, hillside seeps
Seepage swamps on edges of salt marshes
Slow streams, pools, ditches
Disturbed areas, edges, roadsides
Shallow water, marshes, edges of swamps
Seepage swamps on edges of salt marshes
Rich woods and seeps; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Moist woodlands and moist ground along streams; primarily of the Piedmont, uncommon on the Coastal Plain
Rich woods and floodplains; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Rich woods with a thin canopy
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Cultivated and a rare escape to woodland edges
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas
Cultivated and escaping to moist woodlands
Moist woods and floodplain edges
Cultivated and escaping to disturbed areas
Cultivated and escaping to disturbed areas
Rare escape to roadsides and disturbed areas
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Cultivated and rarely escaping to disturbed areas
Dunes along the southern Delaware Bay and Atlantic coast-lines
Moist woods, open thickets, rock walls
Rocky wooded slopes
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to roadsides
Common throughout in old fields, meadows and roadsides
Thickets, edges, fields and meadows
Disturbed areas, edges, old fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas with poorly drained soils, agricultural fields, and occasionally in tidal marshes
Dry fields, edges, roadsides
Meadows and dry pastures
Dry woods, roadside banks
Dry woods, roadside banks
Moist banks and woods
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges
Disturbed areas, edges
Open sandy woodlands and edges
Cultivated and a rare escape to roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rare introduction to disturbed areas
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rare escape to disturbed ground
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Cultivated and a rare escape to disturbed areas
Edges of brackish marshes and salt marshes, adventive inland along heavily salted roadsides
Fresh water tidal shores of the Delaware River
Thin canopy woods, edges and thickets
Fresh water tidal and non-tidal marshes
Poorly drained disturbed areas, ditches, tidal marshes
Wet meadows, open swamps, low ground
Swamps and floodplains
Swamps, swales, marshes, meadows, freshwater tidal shores
Marshes, wet meadows
Fresh to brackish tidal marshes and tidal freshwater seepage areas
Marshes, wet meadows, depressions, ditches, fields
Fresh and brackish tidal marshes
Wet meadows, open floodplains and marshes
Coastal Plain seasonal ponds
Roadsides and disturbed areas.
Roadsides and fields
Roadsides and fields
Roadsides and fields
Roadsides and fields
Roadsides, meadows and fields
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Open areas and roadsides with well-drained soils
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Thin canopy woods and meadows
Meadows and fields
Pastures, meadows, thickets
Open sandy soils along the coast, marsh edges and meadows; primarily of the Coastal Plain, rare in the Piedmont where it grows in grassy meadows
Meadows, marshes and low thickets
Old fields and meadows
Poorly drained sandy/peaty swales and wet open pinelands
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Moist edges and meadows
Old fields, abandoned crop land, roadsides, edges
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to roadsides and often seeded in meadows
Coastal Plain seasonal ponds
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas, not persisting
Rare escape to roadsides
Dry open woods
Edges of swamps and marshes, low ground
Disturbed areas, ditches
Rich woods, edges and thickets; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Sandy soils in open woods, edges, roadsides, power lines
In nearly all habitats except the extremely xeric
Fields and roadsides
Open woods, fields, edges, roadsides
Fields, meadows, edges of woods
Fields, roadsides, dry soils
Sandy woods, edges and roadsides
Dry to moist open woods
Old fields and meadows, disturbed ground
Old fields, roadsides, power-lines, edges
Roadsides, old fields
Interdunal swales, power-line bogs
Swales, wet meadows, marshes
Dry to moist, open sandy soils
Poorly drained peaty/sandy swales, depressions and meadows
Open woods and edges on dry to moist soils
Open woods and edges on dry to moist soils
Pine woods, salt marsh edges, swamps, roadsides, coastal sands
Old fields, edges, sandy soils
Sandy soils, open woods and roadsides, ditches, dune hollows
Woodland slopes; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Seepage swamps
Rich rocky woods
Open, moist sandy soils and roadsides
Moist swales, wet meadows, interdunal swales and acidic fens
Moist swales, wet meadows, moist uplands fields
Moist swales, wet meadows, moist uplands
Dry sandy open woods, edges, thickets
Edges of brackish marshes and salt marshes, over-wash flats, sand dunes
Swamps, stream banks, wet meadows and marshes
Swamps, stream banks, wet meadows and marshes
Rich woods and slopes; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Uncommon introduction to old fields on dry sandy soil
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rare on dry open ground, old fields
Old fields, thin canopy woods
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas
Fresh water tidal marshes and river shores
Moist roadsides, wet meadows
Moist sandy/peaty swales and power-line bogs
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas
Rich moist woods, floodplains and along streams
Open woods and edges, usually rich woods
Roadside ditches, wet meadows, fresh water tidal marshes
Rare along roadsides and in fields
Dry to moist soils, woods, slopes and edges
Roadsides, fields
Dry sandy fields, roadsides and dunes along the coast
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Open areas on well-drained soils
Rare in disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Open areas on well-drained soils
Dry to moist woodlands and slopes
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Open woods and clearings on well-drained soils
Edges of brackish marshes and salt marshes
Edges of brackish marshes and salt marshes
Moist meadows and young thickets
Open places on well-drained soils
Moist woods
Fields and open woods
Rare escape to roadsides
Occasional on disturbed ground
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Cultivated and a rare escape to disturbed areas
Open, dry sandy soils and edges
Dry open woods on sterile ground
Fields, roadsides and open woods
Open woods and meadows
Disturbed areas, roadsides
Moist woods, swamps, stream banks and marshes
Wooded slopes
Sandy soils in open woods and clearings, edges and roadsides
Sandy soils in open woods and clearings, edges and roadsides; primarily of the Coastal Plain, rare in the Piedmont
Atlantic white cedar swamps
Rare introduction on disturbed ground
Rare introduction on disturbed ground
On soils associated with serpentinite
Rich woods and floodplains
Early successional habitats
Moist open woods and roadsides
Rare occurrence on waste ground
Sandy soils, open pine woods, edges and roadside banks
Fresh marshes and swales
Brackish seasonal wetlands and swales
Sunny edges and canopy gaps in brackish shrublands and forests adjacent to tidal marshes
Brackish marshes and high salt marshes
Dry sandy soils, old fields, edges and roadsides
Rare escape to roadsides
Dry to moist open and shady areas
Fields, roadsides and edges
Rich floodplains and stream banks, freshwater tidal marshes; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Cultivated and escaping to meadows and fields
Coastal Plain seasonal ponds, Atlantic white cedar swamps and bogs
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Dry woods and thickets
Dry open woods, thickets, edges
Cultivated and escaping to disturbed areas
Rich woods with a thin canopy, edges, roadsides and thickets
Old fields, roadside edges
Woodlands, slopes and thickets
Open woods and slopes with well-drained soils, roadside banks
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, uncommon on the Coastal Plain
Rich open soils, fields, roadsides, edges
Dry pine woods and sandy roadsides
Moist depressions and swales along the coast and near tidal marshes
Rich woods, slopes and floodplains; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Wet meadows, fresh tidal marshes
Dry soils, fields, open woods
Thin canopy woods and edges, old fields and meadows
Salt marshes
Open areas with well-drained soils, meadows
Dry to moist open woods and edges
Rich seepage swamps and wet meadows; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Dry, open sandy soils and edges
Old fields, roadsides, edges, dry soils
Swamps, wet woods, edges
Salt marshes and coastal dunes, adventive inland along heavily salted roadsides
Rocky woods and slopes
Poorly drained, peaty/sandy swales and Atlantic white cedar swamps
Dry, open sandy soils and woodland clearings
Seepage swamps and bogs, Atlantic white cedar swamps
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Open sandy soils and coastal dunes
Wooded slopes and rock outcrops, meadows, roadsides; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Old fields, roadsides, edges
Old fields, roadsides, edges
Dry to moist rich woods and open places; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Tidal shores and marshes, swampy woods, wet meadows, ditches
Open woods, thickets, roadsides and meadows
Open woods, thickets, roadsides and meadows
Wet meadows and ditches
Swamps, marshes and acidic peaty wetlands
Swamps, marshes and acidic peaty wetlands
Open woods on well-drained soils
Fields, open woods, roadsides
Fields, open woods, roadsides
Moist wooded slopes and floodplains
Wet meadows, floodplains and swamps
Brackish marshes and meadows, often weedy
High salt marsh meadows
Open woods and edges with well-drained soils
Cultivated and a rare escape to disturbed areas
Uncommon in disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Uncommon in disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, roadsides
Cultivated and infrequently escaping to disturbed ground
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rich woods, edges, floodplains
Moist woodland edges
Rich woods and edges; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Wet meadows, marshes, swales
Occasional on disturbed ground
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides, poorly drained swales and depressions
Disturbed areas, roadsides and edges
Moist woods and floodplains
Moist woods and floodplains
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Open swamps, seeps, wet meadows, marshes
Banks of steams, wet meadows, floodplains
Cultivated and escaping to woodlands and thickets; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Cultivated and a rare escape to disturbed areas
Rich woods and slopes
Cultivated and occasionally escaping to woodlands
A rare escape from cultivation to natural areas
Moist upland woods, usually rich woods
Cultivated and a rare escape to disturbed areas
Fresh water tidal and non-tidal marshes and swamps
Sunny to partially sunny river and creek banks, open wet meadows, edges of tidal and non-tidal freshwater wetlands
Moist woodlands of northern and central New Castle County
Floodplains of rivers and creeks
Edges of moist to poorly drained woods and thickets of the Piedmont and just below the fall-line
Woods, banks of creeks and streams
Rocky woods
Rich woods and slopes
Clearings, thin canopy woods, edges
Cultivated and escaping to woodlands and edges
Wet acid woods, swamps, floodplains and seeps; primarily of the Coastal Plain, rare in the Piedmont
Open swamps and swales, Coastal Plain seasonal ponds
Rare introduction to disturbed areas
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Occasional in meadows and on disturbed soils
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Moist woods, thickets and edges
Rare introduction to coastal sands
Rare introduction on disturbed ground
Rich floodplain woods; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Open places on well-drained soils
Rich woods and floodplains; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Uncommon introduction to fields and edges
Wet soils, mud, shallow water
Rich soils in open woods
Poorly drained areas, ditches, along streams
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Dry woods and fields
Moist open areas and grassy roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Moist woods and floodplains; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Serpentine exposures of the Piedmont and dry sandy soils of the Coastal Plain
Dry sandy soils
Cultivated and occassionally escaping to disturbed areas, edges, fields and roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Rich woods; primarily of the Piedmont, rare on the Coastal Plain
Usually on cultivated soils
Disturbed areas, edges, fields, roadsides
Usually on cultivated soils
Foredunes of coastal beaches